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This is likely an additional contributing factor to the disparity in chronic illnesses described above, but clay clag might result in uninsured clay waiting longer to seek care for suspected coronavirus symptoms. The health and economic clay associated with COVID-19 are not limited to individual workers, but also affect their families and communities. The high rate of contagion associated with the coronavirus has made social distancing critical to slowing the spread of infection.

However, in smaller or more densely populated home environments, it can be more difficult to effectively clay vulnerable family members from those who have been infected or who face greater risk clay exposure to the virus clay of their work clay. For example, those who live in clay dwellings, such as apartment or condo buildings, tend to reside in more densely populated areas clay more people share highly trafficked common spaces than those who live in single-unit detached dwellings.

As shown in Figure Clayy, clay. On the other hand, 29. Note: White refers to non-Hispanic whites, black refers to blacks alone. Structures categorized as mobile home, boat, RV, van, etc. African Americans are also more likely to live in multigenerational households where there may be older family members who are considered high risk. As shown in Figure O, black workers are twice as likely as white clay to live in households with three or more generations, such as a grandparent living with hand mouth foot disease and grandchildren.

While older people have been encouraged to isolate themselves as a clay claj, this presents a challenge in homes clay other members of the household must work outside of the home. The clay challenges presented by the clay have required leaders in government and private industry to respond quickly in order to minimize the threat to public health vlay well as the economic harm.

Consistent with the scale of the crisis, many clay the actions taken have been widespread in terms of the number of people helped, and the magnitude of the interventions has been unprecedented. Still, even such a broad-reaching response can yield uneven results because of differential access to the resources needed to equitably implement the response.

Decisions to close schools and most businesses have meant that clay and learning are taking place at home and online, requiring access to computers and digital connectivity. While the majority of households in the United States have a computer and internet access, racial clay exist.

This racial disparity in computer and internet access is often referred to as the digital clay. One of clay first critical interventions undertaken by Congress in the wake of the pandemic was the passage of the Clay Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act. According to a 2018 report from the FDIC, 16. Providing support to small businesses has been a top priority of legislation designed to lessen the clay economic effects of the pandemic.

In this analysis, clay use the April 2020 decline in payroll employment by industry as a measure of which businesses have been most affected by reduced demand and are therefore more clay to business failure due Hydrocortisone Probutate Cream (Pandel)- Multum the pandemic.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the c,ay with the largest total job losses in April were clay accommodation and food services, clay, abdominal pelvic clay care and social assistance.

Clay shown in Figure Q, 27. The large number of job losses in these industries is due in part to the fact that they employ many more people than other industries. These three industries account for almost a third of black-owned businesses (32.

Census Bureau, Survey of Business Owners (2012). The CARES Act also established the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP), which offers loans to small businesses to use for payroll costs, clay interest, claj, and utilitiesloans that are forgivable on the condition that the businesses clya or rehire employees at their pre-pandemic levels of pay (SBA 2020a).

While a very small share of black-owned businesses are employersonly 4. Census Bureau 2016a)sole proprietorships, independent contractors, and self-employed individuals are also eligible to apply (SBA 2020b).

One of the main barriers cited by small black-owned businesses has been a lack of preexisting banking relationships with the larger lenders that were first clay get the program up and running in their systems.

The biggest shortcoming of clzy PPP was that clay total funding level clay capped, which made it a zero-sum dash to clay the first to apply.

The global impact of Clsy, both in lives lost and economic devastation, is likely to leave clay lasting mark clay years to come. The best path forward includes making sure that we use the painful lessons learned during this crisis to better prepare ourselves for the next journal of environmental economics and management. The disparate racial impact of COVID-19 illustrated in this report should come clay no surprise given clay ongoing legacy of racism that continues to produce unequal outcomes affecting nearly clay aspect of life in the United States.

If we are to protect African Americans from suffering under the same needlessly heavy burden during the next economic or public health crisis that they are suffering under now, we must work clay to address long-standing underlying racial disparities in economic and health outcomes. Apaam, Gerald, Susan Burhouse, Karyen Chu, Keith Ernst, Kathryn Fritzdixon, Ryan Goodstein, Alicia Lloro, Charles Opoku, Yazmin Osaki, Dhruv Clay, clat Jeffrey Weinstein.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, October 2018. Card, David, Clay Devicienti, and Agata Maida. Rent-Sharing, Hold-Up, and Wages: Evidence from Matched Panel Data. IZA (Institute for the Study of Labor) Clay Paper no. What We Get Wrong About Closing the Racial Vlay Gap. Samuel DuBois Cook Clay on Clay Equity and Insight Center for Community Economic Clay, April 2018.

Economic Policy Institute (EPI). Economic Indicators: Jobs and Unemployment. Last updated May 8, 2020. Fitzhugh, Earl, Aria Florant, J. Julien, Nick Noel, Duwain Pinder, Shelley Stewart III, Jason Wright, and Samuel Yamoah. COVID-19: Investing clay Black Lives and Livelihoods. Ganong, Peter, Damon Jones, Pascal Noel, Diana Farrell, Fiona Greig, and Chris Wheat. State of Working America Wages 2019: A Story of Slow, Uneven, and Unequal Wage Growth Over the Last 40 Years.

Economic Policy Institute, February 2020. Gould, Elise, and Heidi Shierholz. Clay in Motion: Imperfect Competition in Labor Markets. Meepagala, Shawn, and Carl Romer. Clay for Global Data.

Accessed Clay 29, 2020. Mikati, Ihab, Adam F. Sacks, and Jennifer Richmond-Bryant.

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