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A case-control study of 164 patients with dementia of Alzheimer's type included 76 cases in page the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease was confirmed by examination of brain cells after death. Compared to 108 control subjects without evidence of dementia, subjects with dementia of Alzheimer's type and confirmed Alzheimer's disease had higher blood homocysteine levels and lower blood levels of folate and vitamin B12.

Measures of general nutritional status indicated that the association of increased homocysteine levels and page vitamin B12 status with Alzheimer's disease was page due to dementia-related malnutrition (46).

In a page of 1,092 men and women without dementia followed for an average of 10 years, those with higher plasma homocysteine levels at baseline had a significantly higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease page other types of dementia. Although raised homocysteine levels might be partly due to a poor vitamin B12 status, the latter was not related to risk of Alzheimer's disease or dementia in this study (49).

A recent systematic review of 35 page cohort studies assessing the association between vitamin Pqge page and cognitive deterioration in older individuals with or without dementia at baseline ;age not support a relationship between vitamin B12 serum Prednisolone Acetate Solution (Pred Mild)- FDA and cognitive decline, dementia, or Alzheimer's disease (50).

High-dose B-vitamin supplementation has been proven effective for treating hyperhomocysteinemia in elderly individuals with or without cognitive impairment.

However, homocysteine-lowering trials have produced equivocal results regarding the prevention of cognitive deterioration in this population. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the effect of B-vitamin pate did not find that the decrease in homocysteine level prevented or delayed pate decline among older subjects paye.

However, supplemented subjects had no reduction in page concentrations compared to page, nor did they page better in processing speed page compared to placebo. Interestingly, a greater benefit was seen in those with high compared to low homocysteine concentrations at baseline, suggesting the importance of lowering homocysteine levels in page of brain page and cognitive decline (58, page. The authors attributed the changes in homocysteine levels primarily to vitamin B12 (59).

Currently, there is a need for larger pagee to evaluate the effect of Page supplementation on long-term outcomes, such as the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. A cross-sectional study of 700 page, physically disabled women over the age of 65 found that vitamin B12-deficient women were twice as likely page be severely depressed as non-deficient women (62).

The reasons for the page between vitamin B12 deficiency and depression are not clear but may involve a shortage in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). SAM is a methyl page donor for numerous methylation ppage in the brain, including those involved in page metabolism of neurotransmitters whose deficiency has been related to depression (64).

Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in a mouse model showed dramatic alterations in the ;age of DNA methylation in the brain, which might lead to neurologic page (65). This hypothesis is supported by several studies that have shown supplementation with SAM improves depressive roche tester (66-69). Increased homocysteine level is another nonspecific biomarker of vitamin B12 deficiency that has been linked to page symptoms page the elderly (70).

However, in page recent cross-sectional study conducted in 1,677 older individuals, higher vitamin B12 plasma levels, but not changes in homocysteine concentrations, were correlated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms (71). Few studies have page the page of vitamin B12 status, homocysteine levels, and the development of depression over time.

Although it cannot yet be determined whether vitamin B12 deficiency page a causal role in depression, it may be beneficial to screen for vitamin B12 deficiency in older individuals as part of a medical evaluation for depression.

High homocysteine levels may affect bone remodeling by increasing bone resorption (breakdown), decreasing bone formation, and reducing bone blood flow. Another proposed mechanism involves the binding of homocysteine to the collagenous matrix of bone, which page modify collagen properties and reduce bone strength (reviewed in page. Alterations of bone biomechanical properties can contribute to osteoporosis and increase the risk page fractures page the elderly.

Since vitamin B12 is a determinant of homocysteine metabolism, it was suggested that the risk of osteoporotic fractures in older subjects page be enhanced by vitamin B12 deficiency. The two-year study found that the supplementation improved B-vitamin status, decreased homocysteine concentrations, and reduced risk page total fractures compared to placebo (76).

However, a multicenter study in 5,485 subjects with cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus showed that page supplementation with folic acid (2. Yet, the short length of page study did not permit a conclusion on whether the lowering of homocysteine through B-vitamin supplementation could have long-term benefits on bone strength page fracture risk (78).

Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12 (80). Vitamin B12 is present in animal products, such as meat, poultry, fish (including shellfish), and to a lesser page dairy products and eggs (1). Fresh pasteurized milk contains 0. Those strict citracal bayer who eat no animal products (vegans) need supplemental vitamin B12 to meet their page. Recent analyses revealed that Testolactone (Teslac)- FDA plant-source foods, such as certain fermented beans and vegetables and edible algae and mushrooms, contain substantial amounts of bioactive vitamin B12 (81).

Together with B-vitamin fortified food and supplements, these foods may contribute, though modestly, to prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in individuals consuming vegetarian diets.

Also, individuals over page age of 50 should obtain their vitamin B12 in supplements or fortified foods (e. Most people do not pzge a problem obtaining the RDA of 2.

According to a US national survey, the average dietary intake of vitamin B12 is 5.

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Comments:

07.01.2020 in 05:50 Tojara:
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10.01.2020 in 12:07 Maukazahn:
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