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What are topics of bladder cancer research. Center Bladder Cancer uk astrazeneca of the Urinary Bladder) Center Comments Patient Comments: Bladder Cancer - Effective Treatment Patient Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum Bladder Cancer - Share Your Experience Patient Comments: Bladder Cancer - Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum Patient Comments: Bladder Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum - Diagnosis Patient Comments: Bladder Cancer - Transurethral Surgery Experience Patient Comments: Bladder Cancer - Chemotherapy Experience Vioplex t Find a local Oncologist in your town Bladder cancer factsBlood in the urine may or may not be accompanied by pain, but it is always abnormal meat freezing should be further investigated by a healthcare professional.

What is the bladder. The urinary bladder, or the bladder, is a hollow organ in the pelvis. Most of it lies behind the pubic bone of the pelvis, but when full of urine, it can extend up into the lower part of the abdomen.

The ureters from both the kidneys open into the urinary bladder. The bladder forms a low-pressure reservoir that gradually stretches out as urine fills into it. In males, the prostate gland is located adjacent to the base of the bladder where urethra joins Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum bladder.

From time to gastro j, the muscular wall of the bladder contracts to expel urine through the urinary passage (urethra) into the outside world. The normal volume of the full bladder is about 400 ml-600 ml, or about 2 cups.

The bladder consists of three layers of tissue. The innermost layer of the bladder, which comes in contact with the urine stored inside the bladder, is called the "mucosa" and consists of several layers of specialized cells called "transitional cells," which Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum almost exclusively found in the Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum system of opioid addiction body.

These same cells also form the inner lining of the ureters, kidneys, and a part of the urethra. These cells form a waterproof lining within these organs to prevent the urine Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum going into the deeper tissue layers.

These cells are also termed urothelial cells, and the mucosa is termed the urothelium. The middle layer is a thin lining known as the "lamina propria" and forms the boundary between the inner "mucosa" and the outer muscular layer. This layer has a network of blood Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum and nerves and is an important landmark in terms of the staging of Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum cancer (described in detail below in the bladder cancer staging section).

The outer layer of the bladder (the "muscularis") comprises of the "detrusor" muscle. This is the thickest layer of the bladder wall. Outside these three layers is a variable amount of fat that lines and protects the bladder like a Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum cushion and separates it from the surrounding organs such as the rectum Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum the muscles and bones of the pelvis.

Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum cancer is an uncontrolled abnormal growth and multiplication of cells in the urinary bladder, which have broken free from the normal mechanisms that keep uncontrolled cell growth in check. Invasive bladder cancer (like cancers of other organs) has the ability to spread (metastasize) to other Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum parts, including phosphate lungs, bones, Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum liver.

Bladder cancer invariably starts from the innermost layer of the bladder (for example, the mucosa) and may invade into the deeper layers as it grows. Alternately, it may remain confined to the mucosa for a prolonged period. Visually, it may appear in various forms.

Most common is a shrub-like appearance Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum, but it may also appear as a nodule, Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum irregular solid growth or a flat, barely perceptible thickening of the inner bladder wall (see details in subsequent sections).

Bladder cancer has the dubious distinction of inclusion on the top 10 list of cancers, with an estimated 81,190 new cases occurring in 2017 within the U. Bladder cancer is three to Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum times more likely to be diagnosed in men than in women and journal of power sources two times higher in hypotension men than in African-American men.

Bladder cancer killed approximately 17,240 people in the U. What are the types of bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is classified based on the appearance of its cells under the microscope (histological type). The type of bladder cancer has implications in selecting the appropriate treatment for the disease. For example, certain types may Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine)- Multum respond to radiation and chemotherapy as well as others. The histological type of the cancer may also impact the extent of surgery required for maximizing the chances of cure.

In addition, physicians often describe bladder cancer based on its position in the wall of the bladder. Noninvasive bladder cancers occur in the inner layer of cells (transitional cell epithelium) but do not penetrate into deeper layers. Invasive cancers penetrate into the deeper layers such as the muscle layer.

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